The Difference Between Price and Cost

Price Versus Cost

Off Piste


This article is going to go ‘off piste’ a little from singing, but it is very relevant to the bigger picture of self-development and increasing one’s knowledge. I want to explore true value, perceived value and the difference between price and cost. I basically want to understand why human nature, more often than not, works in such a price driven way as opposed to a value driven one.

Let’s start by looking at car mechanics. If your car breaks down and is off the road for any length of time it costs you money. It can affect your ability to work (especially if you’re a driver of any kind), and therefore your ability to earn money.

You Decide


Let’s say you have two choices. One option is to get your car fixed as soon as possible by a very experienced and respected mechanic who has been in business for over 30 years and knows engines inside out. He offers a guarantee and his contact details so that you can get in touch with him at any time to sort out any potential issues and ask any questions.

He will also introduce you to other drivers who may have the same issues as you, so that you can freely discuss ways to help each other out in future.

This option is $1,000 and he can fit you in today and guarantee to have you back on the road by tomorrow.

The other option is to get your car fixed as cheaply as possible by a brand new mechanic who has only just recently set up in business. He offers no after repair service and basically if your car breaks down again, it’s just hard luck and you have to get it fixed again.

This option is $100 and it will be 2 weeks before he can fit you in.

Which option would you go for?

Believe it or not, most people would choose option 2 simply because it ‘looks’ 10 times cheaper than option 1.

Which is the better value?

The price of option 1 is 10 times that of option 2, however, you’ve only had to take 1 day off work, at say $200. The total cost of option 1 is therefore $1,200 and you only had to miss 1 day of work. You also have a guarantee and lots of follow up advice options at your disposal.

The price of option 2 is $100 plus 10 days off work at $200 per day, so that’s $2,100 if you’re self-employed and can’t work. If you hire a car at say $250 per week then the price is $600 but you now run the risk of having another breakdown and no one to turn to.

Let’s say your car breaks down again 1 month later. It is another $100 and 2 weeks of car rental at $250 per week so another $600.

You have now paid out $1200 and still have no after repair service or advice available from anyone.

The original price may have been less but at what cost?

What was the real cost of taking the cheaper option?

All these costs are hypothetical of course and not real, but it is an illustration of what you think looks like the best and cheapest option at first glance, can quite often turn out to be the most expensive and costly from a true ‘value’ perspective in the long run.

Online Singing Program
Take my online singing program as another example of price versus cost and true value.

Best Value

My best value offer, which is only available on my website, is £67 (or circa US $95) for 12 downloadable modules which comprehensively cover every aspect of how to improve your singing voice and performance. These modules (and the additional audio file) can be downloaded from anywhere in the world and onto any device and are yours to keep and reference forever.

In addition to this, I also offer access to my personal email and a very select VIP closed Facebook group (by invite only) where members can share their experience, advice and ideas and help each other grow and improve their singing together as part of a like-minded community.

Least Value


My alternative (and much lower value) offer is only available on Amazon. This option offers a ‘Kindle only’ version of the program, which is available at just £6.65 (or circa $9). This version however, can only been downloaded onto a Kindle device (or the free Kindle app) by those who can access Amazon products. For example, residents of Singapore can’t access Kindle products on Amazon but they can download my program from my website.

You can’t save the modules to your device – they have to be opened in the Kindle app or on the Kindle device.

There is also no personal email and no Facebook group associated with the Amazon product.

Which option do you think is going to help you improve the most?

It’s without doubt the first option which is best value and which will help you improve and develop your voice in the quickest and most effective way possible. The value of the Facebook group alone is worth ten times the price of the program.

Most people however, bizarrely, seem to opt for option 2 because it is the cheapest price. They more than likely buy the product, read a couple of pages, then never come back to it. There is no ongoing advice or discussion to keep them focused or to help with their development, which really is the key to success. So the end result in the majority of cases, unless they are strictly self-motivated, is a resounding failure to improve their singing voice.

They will then probably end up spending more money by going down the route of the best value option via the website or buying some other programs at a much higher price and cost.


So in order to measure the true value of something, you have to make sure you select the option which is best suited to help you achieve your end goal financially, mentally and physically, not just pay the lowest price because it looks cheaper on paper, otherwise you are wasting your money, no matter how cheap the initial investment is.

I truly believe that you really do get what you pay for with most things in life, however, with this program, I really believe you get much more than that. I can honestly say, with the right mindset, if used correctly, my singing program will change your life and give you some amazing tools to really excel with your singing voice.


Practise Doing the Right Things – Don’t Be a Busy Fool

Wrong way

Have you ever heard someone say – “Oh so and so, they’ll be a brilliant singer because they’re always practising.”? I think we’ve probably all heard this at some stage in our lives. Well I can honestly tell you that unless you practise doing the right things, you’ll more than likely be wasting all your time and effort going through the motions.

Practise for the sake of practise is pointless. It generally means that you’re just spending time running through your songs or your performance but not actually achieving anything productive. It may be fun but it’s not really practising effectively.

Revisit the Basics Regularly

Even the most accomplished of performers and singers will often get back to basics and work on their technique and hone it until it becomes an automatic habit every time they perform. They may already be a fantastic singer but they are never happy unless they are constantly striving to improve.

Another habit which most performers or singers will tend to do in rehearsal is sing all the way through a song and then try and fix everything in one go. Again, this is a bad idea on so many levels:

i, you probably won’t remember everything that could be done better
ii, you are getting into bad habits of letting things slide without fixing them straight away
iii, you allow these lower standards to become the norm

Fix It Now

The best way to improve in anything is to fix any issue that needs attention at the very moment it becomes an issue. If you leave it until the end of the song, you’ll either forget it ever happened or you’ll accept it as being ok.

If you get into the habit of fixing things immediately, you should notice that you’ll start to raise your game straight away. If you get used to being more picky with your performance and stopping it every time you’re not entirely happy, the quicker you will make great strides forward with your singing.

Another important aspect of rehearsal technique which is so important yet so often overlooked, is to record every session in its entirety. You may think you have covered everything during a rehearsal but when you listen back, you’ll invariably find other things you missed during the actual practice session.

Remember, the standards you set yourself during rehearsal will inevitably become the standards with which you perform in public, so always treat every rehearsal like a performance and you will soon start to see some huge improvements.

Why You Should Always Look on the Bright Side of Life

Always Look on the Bright Side of Life

For some unknown reason I always want to break into song when I hear these words as the Monty Python song  ‘Always Look on the Bright Side of Life’ comes flooding back to me.

I was recently driving long distance to work with a choir in the south of England when something happened along the way which was rather annoying at the time. When I look back on the incident, I should have just dismissed it instantly, refocused and carried on with my journey regardless, but something really riled me this time.

Having had time to ponder afterwards, I’ll now explain why you should always look on the bright side of life and never fear the worst.

So what happened?

Well it was nothing more than joining a congested motorway (freeway) on a Friday evening where the traffic had started to reduce speed due to mandatory speed limits; speed limits which are controlled manually from a remote computer and are displayed on the gantry over the new so-called ‘smart’ motorways.

I was coming out of a 70mph zone and into a mandatory 60mph zone and a speed camera was positioned right at the instant the 60mph zone started. Yes, you’ve guessed it ‘double flash’ – the light of the flash is brighter than anything around you and almost lights up the whole inside of your car when you’re travelling in the dark.

Gutted…..I’d been got!! I was convinced my life was over, the ****** had got me.

Sad Face

So you can guess what was on my mind for the whole rest of the journey; I wasn’t thinking about the job I had to do when I got to my destination, but the fact that I had an impending speeding fine and penalty points due to arrive – I really should have stayed at home that day.

So I carried on with this nagging thought in my head all the way down, literally driving on every speed limit and not 1mph more in fear of getting another ‘flash’.


It certainly focused my mind and stopped me from driving at my usual ‘slightly’ excessive speed, so that was good but it really did eat away at me at how careless I had been not to avoid being zapped.

So for the rest of the weekend and while working, I tried to put it to the back of my mind and get on with the job in hand which incidentally turned out to be a great weekend working with the Kings of Herts men’s barbershop chorus in Harpenden and was a lot of fun and we made a lot of great progress with their singing.

I returned home later the next day and you guessed it, not 1 camera was in operation on the return journey and this somehow seemed to compound my misery. Hey ho, such is life, just sit back and wait for the inevitable to arrive.

2 days, 4 days, 7 days – nothing. Now in the UK if they don’t write to inform you that you have been caught speeding within 14 days then you are off the hook. As I write it is now 23 days since the ‘flash’ and I am happy to say I have not received a thing through the post.

So what is the moral of this story?

Well, clearly that we should always look on the bright side of things, because what we often think may happen, never materialises.

Now what has all this got to do with improving your singing voice I hear you ask. Well, the same goes for all our negative ‘inner’ thoughts we can often hear before we perform. These negative thought processes that create anxiety and nervous tension are all thought patterns of bad things which may or may not happen. Don’t allow them to enter your head for even a second, just eradicate them instantly and think about the good things that are happening.

By staying in the ’present’ and only thinking of what is happening to us right now, we can reduce anxiety and concentrate on enjoying current experiences far more. Anxiety and nervous tension are wasted energy on something which will probably never happen.

Don’t worry about things that may never happen; just enjoy the moment.

The Huge Benefits of Online Singing Programs

Online Singing Programs

You may have heard me talk about the benefits of online singing programs before but I wanted to discuss them here in more detail. When you are learning to sing it’s important to understand that it’s a long journey you’re taking, not just a particular destination that you are aiming to reach. You should always be developing your skills, always learning more about your craft.

Whenever you are setting out on any long journey, it takes a certain amount of faith, courage and trust that you are heading in the right direction. There are so many ‘how to sing’ tutorials online that it becomes a wilderness of information and if you are just at a crossroads not knowing which way to turn, it can cause one big headache.


Online Singing Programs

Many of these tutorials tend to show a professional singer with an amazing voice demonstrating how to sing certain exercises.

Now the average singer or person who aspires to sing, would have absolutely no chance of emulating these singers and most of them don’t really explain what they are actually doing with their voice.

How can you possibly develop your own singing skills if you don’t understand what they are doing with their voice?

Video tutorials are great if you know exactly what you need to do and also if you know which exercises will be beneficial for your own voice development.

How can you possibly know this?

Well in all honesty you probably can’t know this if you are just starting out. If you’re a reasonably established singer or have had singing lessons in the past then you may have some sort of idea, but not many people will be in this fortunate position.


In my experience, most people are looking for proper guidance and ways to improve their voice which are simple, straightforward and actually explain how the voice works; with diagrams, illustrations and tutorials.

A step-by-step blueprint to help them improve their voice in all areas from posture and alignment, breathing techniques, creating good tone quality and resonance right through to performance artistry.

This is where the complete online singing program comes into its own. A good singing program is designed to help both the beginner and the more accomplished singer in a way that is systematic and easy to follow.

They explain how the voice actually works so you are in no doubt as to how it will help you improve. You can also learn at your own pace, in the comfort of your own home or office without the worry of other people listening and judging you while you’re developing your skills.


Good singing programs also include vocal exercises which are specifically designed to target certain areas of your voice and in a specific order so that you are developing in the right way and not doing things in the wrong order. This will help your voice develop stronger over time.

So how do you know which programs will work for you?

Well you won’t really know until you try them. As I mentioned before, singing is a journey and you should always be seeking out new information or new ways of improving your skills. I’d recommend trying more than one program as one particular form of instruction may work better for you than another.


The most important factor though is that it is devised or written by someone you trust who has ‘been there and done it’ and has shown results with their work. Not just someone who has ‘qualifications’ or has written a book, recorded a video etc. Someone who has demonstrated that they have significantly improved many peoples’ voices over the years.

So you can see that online singing programs have huge benefits and really can help you improve your singing voice over time.

Well that’s great but aren’t they expensive?

In answer to this question, you have to consider what you would call expensive. Is investing in the one voice that you have worthwhile?

Prices can vary from as little as $50 up to as high as $500 but if you compare this with the cost of high quality singing lessons which could vary from $32 right up to $200 for just a half hour, then it really is worth taking this route so that you can work at your own speed.

That brings me onto….

My Special Offer For You

Online Programs

As a thank you for reading this article and for visiting my website, I’d like to introduce you to a special offer I’m running. My complete online singing program is currently available for just $96 – full RRP is $494. This one-time offer includes VIP membership into my Facebook group forum where you can discuss anything to do with the program or ask help from any other member.

You’ll also gain access to my personal email address where you can seek advice and help with the program. Grab your copy now at this link:


However, and now it gets really exciting – If you don’t need my personal email and you’re not too fussed about the Facebook group and you’re happy to go it alone, then the full program is available for download on Kindle at Amazon for just $9 – yes you heard it right – the full program is available right now for just $9, that’s a saving of over $87 via the link below.

Please note however, that Kindle downloads are not currently available in certain countries, such as Singapore for example, so the program would need to be accessed via the above link on this website.


Look what others are saying about the program:

“Clear and concise module based singing program written in a personable style which is easy to follow and gives you confidence in using your voice. I’ve been singing as an amateur for several years now and wanted to make the step up to the next level, and this has given me the tools to do so. Would recommend it.”

“An excellent program that is well constructed and easy to use. I like the fact that I wasn’t passively reading it as there were activities to complete to help my understanding of the subject. All in all an excellent read, highly recommended.”

“Well written in plain English by a leader in the field. It helped greatly with my singing. I would recommend this to anyone who wants to improve their singing whatever the genre.”

“Well you could watch X Factor and your favourite stars or you could learn to sing properly. This easy to follow guide offers well chosen exercises to help you bring out your inner diva. A must for anyone at any level that wants to sing better and learn how to take care of their voice.”

“It’s difficult to envisage a more supportive, informative and comprehensive guide to developing voice and performance. A real asset to all who seek to improve singing technique and delivery.”

Download your copy now while it’s still at this bargain price of $9.

Thank you and good luck with your singing journey!


Why We Should Concentrate on Becoming Less Competitive and More Creative

Be Creative

I thought I’d write about a subject very close to my heart today, and that is why in most areas of our lives, we should concentrate on becoming less competitive and more creative.

Let me explain. When we compete for anything in life, whether it be a prize for best in class, or something we all aspire to, we tend to harbour some form of aggression and single mindedness in order to beat the rest of the competition. It becomes all about the win and nothing else; an obsession.


While in some cases this ‘fighting instinct’ is necessary and gives you that fighting edge over others; in performing arts such as singing it can have a really negative impact on your performance.

If all we are concerned with is beating the competition then are we capable of giving our best, most emotional and musical performance?

The answer is ‘probably not’.

The World’s Your Oyster

By getting more creative and developing our own skills, we can open up the mind to an endless world of possibilities. We can start to explore music beyond that which we need to win. We start to bring passion, emotion and storytelling to the forefront and deliver a far more meaningful experience for ourselves and our audiences.

If we are true to the song and singing from the heart with all our feelings and emotion, we are sure to win as well. Is it better to receive a commendation for being ‘technically’ perfect or emotionally beautiful?

Which one will stir your audience the most? Which performance will they remember forever?

Being creative through music changes lives for the better, being competitive just becomes a never ending treadmill of jealousy and hatred in many cases.

If we compete, we get ‘bitter’. If we get more creative, then we get ‘better’.

Don’t allow yourself to become bitter, work on being better in every way.


Singing Practice Makes Permanent

Practice Makes Permanent

When we talk about practice sessions in just about anything, most people will use the phrase ‘practice makes perfect’ and I’m sure you’ve heard that saying many times before. In this article however, I’d like to discuss what we really should be saying and that is that ‘practice makes things permanent’, not perfect.

If we constantly strive for perfection then we are bound to become dismayed at some point in the future when we don’t quite achieve that goal. How do we actually measure perfection anyway? It’s quite subjective and probably not even achievable in whatever it is we’re trying to do.

Concentrate on the Basics

With regards to singing practice, the important thing is that we are repeating the right things and not just going through the motions. If all we are doing is singing songs and repeating the same bad habits, then things will never improve.

If, on the other hand, we are practising the basics, and trying to improve our execution of those basic techniques, then our ‘default’ level of rehearsal ie where we start each rehearsal, will improve over time.

Effective Repetition

The more we repeat effectively, the more we will retain and the better the chance of things becoming permanent every time we do them. Perfection doesn’t really have a place in most musical performances as we want to experience real-life ‘emotions’ and not technical brilliance.

A technical performance may wow you temporarily, but a true emotional experience with a few errors will last a lifetime. So the next time someone says to you ‘keep practising, it’ll make your singing perfect’, just replace the word perfect with permanent and you will see a huge shift in your mental attitude towards rehearsal and also to the amount of pressure you take away from yourself.

Don’t beat yourself up striving for the perfect singing voice and perfect performance, just try your best to make the basic things become more of a habit, so that every time you sing you make great leaps forward.


How to Succeed in Anything – Especially Singing


Learning to improve your singing voice is not just about having great technique. Some of the best singers in the world certainly don’t have what you would class as the best singing technique. What they do have however, is the desire to succeed. In fact, they could probably succeed in just about anything they turn their hand to, but this probably applies even more so with their singing.

The Power of Desire

The power of desire when it becomes an ‘obsession’ is a force that cannot be knocked off course. Success in anything takes a lot of hard work, commitment and dedication. It takes a degree of talent in some cases but talent is nowhere near as important as the desire to succeed.

Think about that for a minute. How many times have you wanted to achieve something only to give up at the last moment? I’m guessing quite a few. You’ve got to ask yourself ‘Was the desire strong enough?’

On the other hand, how many times have you set your mind on something and thought ‘I’m going to succeed with this no matter what obstacles or challenges get in the way.’ You push on and no matter what hurdles you have to jump over, you just do it because you have the strongest desire to achieve a successful outcome.

Burning Desire

The same goes with wanting to improve your singing voice. Everyone wants to be better, everyone wants to improve and be successful, but not everyone has the burning desire to make sure it happens regardless of their current knowledge, technique or talent.

If you want something enough you’ve got to go out and get it. It’s the difference between success and failure at the last hurdle.

It doesn’t matter if you think you can’t sing very well or that you don’t like your voice. All that matters is that you have the desire to want to be the very best that you can be. You will do absolutely anything it takes in order to improve and be successful.

Do you have the desire to really improve your singing voice? Or will you still be in the same place you are now, this time next year, wondering what you have to do to improve?

The choice is yours. You are the master of your own destiny!!

Why Everyone Should Sing Even If You Think You Can’t

Can't Sing

Singing is good for you. It’s a medically proven fact that singing reduces stress, acts as a natural pain reliever by releasing endorphins in our brains, which also leads to that ‘feel-good’ factor. These reasons alone should be enough to make everyone want to sing even if you think you can’t.

The truth of the matter is that most people who don’t sing, don’t, because they believe they can’t. More often than not, it’s because they have been told by someone who is close to them, that they can’t sing.

If this is the case with you, then these people are really not doing you any favours. In my experience, absolutely anyone can sing and while you may not have the greatest voice in the world, you can certainly learn to ‘improve’ your singing voice.

You don’t have to have a voice like Pavarotti or Celine Dion to enjoy singing. If you like singing in the shower or in the car on the way to work then do it and keep doing it.

Outside Influence

The minute we allow others to judge us and tell us to stop because we ‘can’t sing’ is the minute we’re accepting these people as being right and being knowledgeable about what they are saying.

In most instances it’s because the person who is singing is untrained and may not be using their voice in the best way possible.

Can this be taught? Absolutely it can. We were all given one voice and unless your voice is damaged or you are in the unfortunate position where you physically can’t utter a sound, the desire and commitment to find out how your voice works and how to get the best out of it should be in your own interest.

You’ll be amazed how much joy you can get out of singing if you really want to. You may be singing in the completely wrong range for your voice and there may be a hidden gem hiding away at a much lower or higher place in your voice. You may just be lacking confidence and get nervous when singing for people.

There is always a reason why someone may say you can’t sing but you need to set yourself the goal of proving them wrong and start doing it for yourself because you enjoy it and because it is good for you.

If you enjoy singing then there are far more reasons to keep doing it than to stop. Even if it’s for your own entertainment while you’re in the bath, keep singing.

Understanding the Difference between Breath Support and Breath Management


You may find it hard to believe, but these are 2 of the most commonly misused terms in singing. So before we start to look at the difference between breath support and breath management, let’s first take a look at what’s involved in the breathing process:

The Nasal Passage
The Mouth (Oral Cavity)
The Trachea
The Lungs
The Diaphragm

Did you know it’s a fact of everyday life that most people only use around one third of their lung capacity on a daily basis for breathing and talking?

It’s true, however, by understanding and learning how the breathing mechanism actually works, you can ‘re-learn’ to use the whole of your lung capacity until it becomes a permanent daily habit.


If you’ve ever watched a newborn baby breathe, you will see its tummy rise as it inhales and fall as it exhales. This is the body’s way of breathing naturally. As we get older we develop thought processes and bad habits which actually make most people breathe in the completely opposite way.

Not only will re-learning to breath naturally dramatically improve your singing voice and take away lots of unwanted stress and pressure, it will also help you to develop a more healthy way of breathing by allowing more oxygen to enter the body.


There is an element of caution to be taken into consideration when talking out breathing processes though and that is:

Although you must physically feel the breathing process working when you are ‘re-learning’ – once it becomes natural again, you must learn to completely relax the process and allow it to happen naturally.

How many times have you heard ‘Breathe from your diaphragm?’ or ‘give it more support by pushing from your tummy?’

While these phrases are commonly used by teachers of singing, they do not help promote a freely produced singing tone. Yes the core has to be strong, stable and fully supported, but the diaphragm (which cannot be directly controlled) must be allowed to do its job naturally.

So the difference between breath support and breath management is simply this:

Breath Support
Engaging the core muscles so you have a nicely expanded rib cage and anchored body to allow the breathing process to operate naturally.

Breath Management (otherwise known as Breath Control)
The process of managing the airflow so that you can control tone quality and how long a note or phrase lasts.

There are lots of breathing exercises and ways to maximise breath control over time and these should be developed on a daily basis in order to help you improve your singing voice.

Please feel free to leave any comments on this or any other post as I always love to hear from anyone interested in improving their singing.

Are Singing Lessons Important When Learning to Sing?

Singing Lessons

This really is a subject which has mixed opinion in the singing world and I want to look at the reasons why I think singing lessons are important when learning to sing.

In this fast paced world we live in, it’s very easy to find yourself busy doing things and chasing your tail as you try and balance your work and home life as well as the odd hobby or two.

Now if singing is one of your chosen hobbies, this type of fast lane lifestyle may take you down the road of having no time to devote to learning to sing better, so you just keep singing through the same old songs, with the same old habits and wonder why you don’t seem to be improving your singing voice.


This is where the first benefit of singing lessons kicks in. Having a set time every week that you have to make available for your learning is the first step towards the discipline required in order to improve your singing. If you didn’t have a lesson booked in you probably wouldn’t even bother to make time to practise on your own.

The second benefit is your lessons will make you practise. In order to be better for the next time you have a lesson, you have to practise regularly otherwise you find you’re wasting your money on good singing lessons.

The third benefit is your teacher or vocal coach will highlight areas in which you need to practise and improve. This is something you can’t fix if all you’re doing is singing on your own on a regular basis making the same mistakes over and over again.

Singing Lessons

There are lots of different ways you can get singing lessons so let’s explore some of these now:

A Book – reading a good book on singing can really help you, especially when you are starting out. You can pick up lots of good ideas and technical aspects of using your voice. The downside here though is picking the right book from the right author and actually making the effort to read it. This takes a lot of self-discipline to help you improve your singing.

Online search – you can search Youtube for video lessons on how to use your voice. While some of these are very good, it’ll take you a long time to search out the ones that are specific to your voice and what you need. Most are just a display of a really good or professional singer demonstrating how good their voice is. While this may have some impact, it’ll be unlikely that you can sound just like them and you may lose confidence as you become increasingly frustrated trying.

Skype/Facetime lessons – while not quite as ideal as being in person, this type of singing lesson can be very beneficial. If you have a good teacher and a good internet connection, then you can achieve some really productive learning using this method. The downside is it can be quite expensive and not quite as effective as being in the same room as the teacher.

Lessons in person with a teacher – obviously if you have a good teacher and you can afford them, singing lessons in person with the right teacher can work out the most beneficial way of learning to sing better. The downside is it’s very expensive on a regular basis and you have to keep them going for a long time in order to get the most out of your voice.

Online Home-Study Singing Programs – these can be very cost effective and very beneficial if you get the right program from the right teacher. You can learn at your own pace, in your own time, in the comfort of your own home or office without distraction. You still have to be self-disciplined, but nothing good comes without putting that extra bit of effort in. The more seriously you want to take your singing the better you will ultimately be. These programs are yours to keep forever and to use as a great reference whenever you need them.

So you can see why I think singing lessons are so important when learning to sing. It’s very important that you stay focused and on the right tracks, doing all the right things. This will enable you to sing for longer and ultimately mean you’ll get far more enjoyment out of singing.